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ILE DE FRANCE SUR LE VIF: reportage de nuit au MIN de Rungis

Publié par Tessa Ivascu | mardi, novembre 06, 2007 | | Vos commentaires

Rungis by night
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Découvrez les images et le reportage de la journaliste Myriam Léon au MIN de Rungis. Le plus grand marché alimentaire du monde est un univers longtemps resté fermé au quidam. Depuis 5 ans, un tour operator organise des visites touristiques de ce lieu qui vit entre minuit et 8 heures. Voyage en compagnie d’un groupe de Norvégiens dans le monde de la France qui se lève tôt.
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Amateurs de marchés pittoresques, où derrière les divers étals colorés le marchand harangue le chaland, circulez il n’y a rien à voir ! Loin de ce folklore, le plus grand marché alimentaire du monde, le MIN (marché d’intérêt national) de Rungis, fonctionne suivant d’autres codes. Cette ville dans la ville tient de la ruche où le 38 tonnes serait la reine. Dans un ballet nocturne, l’essentiel de l’activité se déroulant entre minuit et 7 heures, 26 000 véhicules dont 3 000 gros porteurs se croisent chaque jour sur les 232 hectares du site. Cette France qui se lève tôt réunit 12 400 salariés qui travaillent pour 1 300 entreprises basées sur le MIN (500 grossistes, 220 producteurs, 160 courtiers et sociétés d’import-export…). Ils réalisent un chiffre d’affaires annuel de 7,1 milliards d’euros. Si le marché de Rungis remplace celui des Halles depuis les années 1960, le visiteur lambda n’y est le bienvenu que depuis 5 ans. .
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Pour se lancer dans la découverte touristique des lieux, il faut montrer blouse blanche et être accompagné d’un guide de Tangram Voyage. Depuis 2002, ce voyagiste basé près de Metz détient l’exclusivité des visites de Rungis. La Semmaris, société gérante du MIN, se réserve les visites institutionnelles. Rendez-vous est pris à 5h devant le pavillon A4, celui de la Marée. Ce matin, une vingtaine de Norvégiens travaillant pour une société de crédit à l’export, sont tombés du lit pour découvrir les dessous de l’alimentation. « Notre pays est un gros exportateur de poissons, explique l’un d’eux, nous profitons de notre passage à Paris pour voir comment ça se passe. » Philippe Barbet, le guide, fournit la blouse et le chapeau blancs, le sésame pour les pavillons des cinq secteurs : les poissons, les produits carnés, les produits laitiers, les fruits et légumes, les fleurs. Ainsi déguisé et repérable de loin, le groupe commence sa visite par le pavillon de la marée. .
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Dans une odeur légèrement marine, la lumière crue accentue l’aspect aseptisé du carrelage bleu et blanc. L’entrepôt fait 245 m de long sur 90 m de large et présente à perte de vue des caisses. Seuls quelques spécimens sont apparents sur leur lit de glace. Un requin déclenche la joie et les appareils photo des Nordiques. Plus loin, quelques thons rivalisent de grosseurs. « Dans 10 ans, les thons rouges auront disparu, raconte le guide. Là, c’est un Tilapia, la fameuse espèce qui fait scandale au lac Victoria, le plus grand d’Afrique. Ce matin on a de la chance, il y a quelques belles pièces. La tendance ici est : de moins en moins de poissons, de plus en plus chers, la majorité issue d’élevage. Le marché a perdu de sa splendeur, mais il reste le seul en France où l’on peut acheter du poisson danois pêché 24 h auparavant. » .
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Philippe Barbet ne manie pas la langue de bois, parle couramment norvégien et sait de quoi il parle. « J’ai commencé ma carrière à Rungis en 1984, dans les étages (ndlr : les bureaux où se passent les transactions commerciales). » Ensuite, pendant 2 ans, il a travaillé dans le poisson au Danemark. « A l’origine, je suis juriste, j’ai une société de consultants à Issy-les-Moulineaux. J’aide les pays en voie de développement à mieux produire et à mieux emballer pour trouver des marchés en occident. » Depuis un an et demi, le polyglotte accepte des missions ponctuelles comme guide sur Rungis. « Nous sommes 5 ou 6, beaucoup sont des acheteurs du marché ou ont travaillé sur le MIN. » Un choix stratégique. Ils sont qualifiés pour sillonner cet univers parallèle où, au petit jour, l’on boit un apéro avant de déjeuner. Et ils ont su jouer de diplomatie pour faire accepter des touristes dans ce monde de travailleurs. Encore aujourd’hui, si le passage de grandes blondes aux yeux bleus dans les allées semble distraire agréablement certains, les troupeaux de flâneurs en blouse blanche ne font pas l’unanimité. .
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Les visiteurs zappent les « bonjour, Mesdemoiselles » comme les «ça m ‘énerve, on n’est pas au zoo ». Ils ne comprennent pas le français et à 6h, par 3°C, ils découvrent le premier pavillon des viandes. A gauche, une « guirlande » de têtes de veau, à droite une forêt suspendue de corps de bœufs. Par réflexe, ils s’abritent derrière leurs objectifs et mitraillent. « Ils hallucinent sur les quantités et la diversité des produits carnés. En Norvège, ils trouvent du poulet, des saucisses et quelques morceaux sous vide. Ils vont apprécier le choix en France, mais au fond, ça leur paraît superfétatoire. » .
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Après la triperie, le pavillon volaille et gibier offre une autre particularité de la gastronomie française. Des caisses et des caisses d’oiseaux avec leurs plumes, de lapins en fourrure et quelques sangliers, plus vrais que nature. Au centre du hangar aux voûtes métalliques trône sous les longs néons le Saint-Hubert, bistrot aux vitrines embuées par une foule de blouses blanches qui discute affaires. La clientèle du MIN de Rungis se constitue de restaurateurs et de détaillants. L’Ile-de-France représente 65% du chiffre d’affaires du marché, la province 25%, l’export 10%. Un Français sur cinq est approvisionné par Rungis. .
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Les grandes surfaces, elles, ont vite déserté les lieux en négociant directement avec les producteurs. Le plus olfactif des pavillons, celui des fromages, s’en ressent. « Vous allez voir, on y négocie principalement du soda, puisque les supermarchés ont quasiment le monopole de la distribution des produits laitiers. Dans ce marché, il ne reste que les survivants. » Cela n’empêche pas Philippe de conduire son groupe dans une cave d’affinage où il a « l’autorisation exceptionnelle » de montrer des meules de 72 kg. « On a souvent des visiteurs, explique un des employés de cet affineur. C’est le musée ici, on doit être des bêtes rares. » En tout cas, des bêtes en voie de disparition sur le MIN. Du côté des légumes, la lutte pour la survie passe par l’importation de produits nouveaux comme les kiwis et la mise à disposition à l’année de produits saisonniers. « Cette évolution débouche sur le pire, des tomates sans goût, et sur le meilleur, des raisins et des ananas en provenance d’Afrique du Sud 12 mois sur 12. Curieusement, le bio est très peu développé au MIN. Il n’y a qu’un importateur de fruit et légumes bio. Pourtant si ça ne représente que 2,5% du marché en France, ce chiffre s’élève à 10% dans les pays scandinaves et c’est un marché d’avenir. » .
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7h38, l’attention des visiteurs commence à s’éparpiller, un conducteur de diable râle car il a du mal à se frayer un chemin : « Les Chinois quand ils passent, ils restent bien en file, eux au moins». Là, effectivement tout le monde est dispersé, visiblement très intéressé par les légumes miniatures, les fleurs comestibles, les tomates oranges ou jaunes, les choux-fleurs violets… «Ce qui nous impressionne le plus, c’est la fraîcheur des produits, précise l’un d’eux. Nous ne les découvrons qu’après une semaine dans les supermarchés. Cette visite permet de comprendre ce qui se cache derrière ce que nous voyons dans les rayons. » La visite se termine dans une explosion de parfums et de couleurs au pavillon des fleurs. Philippe poursuit son discours didactique. « Ici, la moitié des produits provient des Pays-Bas. Curieusement, la plupart des fleurs typiquement françaises poussent au Cameroun, et tout ce qui est tropical généralement sous serre en Hollande. » Finalement Rungis, c’est un peu le monde à l’envers.
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